British historian Jonathan Riley-Smith describes the Crusades as a "series of religiously-sanctioned military campaigns waged by much of Latin Christian Europe particularly the Franks of France and the Holy Roman Empire." Specific crusades to restore Christian control of the Holy Land were begun in 1095 A.D. However, European victories were short lived. The Crusaders were driven out of the Middle East by the end of 1291 A.D.The following are historical replica coins of the Muslim Abbisid Caliphate and the feudal Crusader States established during the Holy Land Crusades. First, the Muslim Abbisid Caliphate ruled portions of the Middle East from 750 AD to 1258 AD. This silver dirham was minted during the between 786 AD and 809 AD by Harun al-Rashida The coin was minted at the Madia al Salam mint in Bagdad, Iraq. Second, the Duchy of Sidon (1110 AD-1460 AD) byJulian Grenier (1171 AD-1174 AD). Sidon was one of the four major fifedoms of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, one of the Crusader States. The lordship was a coastal strip on the Mediterranean Sea between Tyre and Beruit. Conquered by Saladin in 1187 AD and remained in Musim control until 1197 AD. Julian Grenier, titular head of Dutchy sold it to the Knights Templar in the last half of the thirteenth century. This is a billion denier of Renaud Grenier who was Duke of Sidon from 1171 AD to 1187 AD. Obv: Tower. Rev: Arrow surrounded by two stars. Legend: SIDONI. Third, the State of Jerusalem (1099 AD-1289 AD) by Amury I (1163 AD-1174 AD)Silver billion denier of Amaury I struck between 1163 AD-1174 AD. Obv: Legend: DE IERVASLEM. Picture of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. Rev: Legend: AMALRICVS REX with a single annulet in legend, cross pattee with annulets in second and third quarterFourth, the State of Antioch (1098 AD-1268 AD) by Bohemond III(1149 AD-1163 AD). Behemond III ruled the Crusader State of Antioch from 1149 AD to 1163 AD. Silver denier. Obv: Legend BOHANVHDVS. Helmeted head of Bohemond facing left; in field, chain mail shaped as cresents. Rev: pattee crescent in second angle, thee pellets in legend. Fifth, the State of Tripoli (1104 AD -1289 AD) by Bohemund VII 1275 AD-1287 AD. Behemund VII ruled the Crusader State of Tripoli from 1275 AD to 1287 AD. Silver gros grand. Obv: Castle with three towers in 12 foil. Rev: Cross in 12 foil. These coins are replicas of original pieces. The are not original coins. These historic replicas are part of the REPRODUCTION section. All coins have the word COPY stamped on the reverse. We accept PayPal for payment. For domestic shipments we use USPS First Class Mail for $3.00 for one set or $4.00 two or more sets. Priority Mail is available for $5.00. We us Priority Mail International flat rate envelope for $13.00 for international shipments. Please sign up for our free newsletter for new gift and holiday suggestions. Powered by eCRATER . List your items fast and easy and manage your active items.