HEROD'S RECONSTRUCTION OF THE SECOND TEMPLE The Second Temple, also known as Zerubbabel's Temple, was built about seventy years after the destruction of the First Temple of Solomon. The new Temple was built on the site of Solomon's Temple – on the east side of Jerusalem on Mount Moriah. The Second Temple was dedicated in 515 B.C. For three hundred and fifty years the Second Temple of Jerusalem was the main structure of religious worship in ancient Israel. In 63 B.C. Roman general Pompey conquered the Holy Land. In 40 B.C., the Romans appointed Herod I (the Great ) the King of the Jews. In 19 B.C Herod began a massive renovation of the Temple and expansion doubling the size of the Temple Mount. Ten thousand workers rebuilt the Temple. One thousand workers (priests trained as masons and carpenters) rebuilt the Temple itself. The Temple proper was complete in a year and a half. The second Temple building, a sanctuary, of courts and cloisters (surrounded the Temple itself) were completed in eight years. The expansion of the Temple Mound with courts and cloisters was completed in 64 A.D. Throughout the four and half decades of construction, the Temple continued to be the uninterrupted center of religious and Jewish life in Jerusalem. Herod's Second Temple was built of white marble, covered with heavy plates of gold in front and rising high above marble cloistered courts – themselves a succession of terraces – the Temple was a conspicuous and dazzling structure from every side. Biblical scholar, Sir G. A. Smith describes overall structure, “Herod's temple consisted of a house divided like its predecessor into the Holy of Holies; and the Holy Place; a porch; an immediate fore-court with an alter of burnt offering; Court of Israel; in front of this a Court of Women; and round the whole preceding, a Court of Gentiles.” In 70 A.D. Roman general Titus destroyed Herod's Second Temple in the Siege of Rome.TEMPLE PICTURE You are in the sanctuary of Herod's Second Temple in the Court of Women, surrounded by colonnades and porticoes. Over your right shoulder is the Temple Treasury, where the widow deposited two mites into a Treasury collection box. In front of you are fifteen semicircular steps where Levite priests chanted and sounded trumpets; there Jesus' parents found their twelve year son in the midst of Temple teachers. At the top of the steps are the Corinthian brass doors of the Nicanor Gates dwarfed by the imposing white marbled Second Temple. Only Temple priests could enter these sacred inner courts (the Altar of Sacrifice; the Court of Israel; and Court of Priests.) Inside the Temple building are the Altar of Incense, the Holy Place. The Veil, and the Holy of Holies. COINS OF THE TEMPLE By the time of the Second Temple reconstruction (19 B.C.-70 A.D.), coins had been used in the Holy Land for over four hundred years. A variety of coins were available in the surrounding and nearby lands including: Judea, Samaria, Galilee, and the Transjordan. In David Hendin's Guide to Biblical Coins, 4th ed., the biblical numismatic scholar, states the primary silver coins of the period are the shekel and half shekel of Tyre; the Roman denarius; and various Secluid and Nabathean coins. “The bronze coins commonly used as the small change were Hasmonean and Secluid mints (which often stayed in circulation for more than 200 years.)” The coins in displayed in this presentation are reproductions of original coins from museums and private collections. Herod I the Great: Bronze 8 Prutot: (First struck in 40 B.C) Rev: Military helmet, facing, wreath featuring acanthus leaf around cheek, cheek pieces and straps, star above flanked by two palm branches. Obv: Tripod, ceremonial bowl (lebes). Inscription: of King Herod. Hendin 486. Copper Widows Mite: Lepton of Alexander Jannaus (Struck in 78 B.C.) Obv.: Upside down anchor within a circle, incomplete inscription. Rev.: Star surrounded by border of dots, incomplete inscription. Silver Tribute Penny: A Roman silver denarius of Emperor Tiberius (Struck after 16 A.D.) Obv: Head of Tiberius Rev.: Female seated facing right. Inscription: High priest of Roman religion. Sear 1763. Note: Translators of King James Bible translated the Latin 'denarius,' a small Roman silver coin into an equivalent seventeenth century small English silver coin – the silver penny. Silver Half Shekel: (Struck between 68 and 69 A.D.) Obv: Omer Cup with Hebrew around coin and date above the cup. Rev: Stem with three pomegranates. Inscription: Jerusalem the Holy. Hendin 663. Silver Shekel of Tyre: Struck between 126 B.C. To 70 C.E.) Obv: Shows the head of Melqarth, which the Greeks called Hercules. Rev: An eagle standing with the right foot on a prow of a ship and a palm branch of its right shoulder. From 126 B.C the Shekel of Tyre were made in the Mediterranean city of Tyre. Examples of these early coins have been found primarily in Lebanon and Syria. Because of quality, true weight, and high silver content, this coin was used exclusively in the commerce of the Temple in Jerusalem. All Israelites were required to pay an annual Temple tax of one half shekel. Each year, Jews from all over the ancient world came to the Temple in Jerusalem to exchanged their local coins into the Shekel of Tyre to pay the annual obligation. From 19 B.C. to 66 A.D., the Shekel of Tyre was minted by the Temple. In Matthew 26:14-15, the chief priests of the Temple agreed to pay Judas Iscariot “thirty pieces of silver” to betray Jesus. The coins Judas received from the Temple priests were, most likely, Shekels of Tyre.