3. Which of the following have substantially equivalent effects on a nation's volume of exports and imports?
Exchange rate depreciation and domestic inflation
Exchange rate depreciation and domestic deflation
Exchange rate appreciation and domestic deflation
Exchange rate appreciation and a decrease in the domestic supply of money
4 If an unintended increase in business inventories occurs at some level of GDP, then GDP:
may be either above or below the equilibrium output
is too high for equilibrium
is too low for equilibrium
entails a rate of aggregate expenditures in excess of the rate of aggregate production
5 Why are economists concerned about inflation?
Inflation lowers the standard of living for people whose income does not increase as fast as the price level
Inflation increases the value of peoples' saving and encourages overspending on goods and services
Inflation generally causes unemployment rates to rise
Real GDP is necessarily falling when there is inflation
6 Contractionary fiscal policy is so named because it:
involves a contraction of the nation's money supply
is aimed at reducing aggregate demand and thus achieving price stability
necessarily reduces the size of government
is expressly designed to expand real GDP
7 The term "recession" describes a situation where:
government takes a less active role in economic matters
output and living standards decline
inflation rates exceed normal levels
an economy's ability to produce is destroyed
8 Which of the following statements best describes the 12 Federal Reserve Banks?
They are privately owned and publicly controlled central banks whose basic goal is to earn profits for their owners.
They are privately owned and publicly controlled central banks whose basic goal is to control the money supply and interest rates in promoting the general economic welfare.
They are privately owned and publicly controlled central banks whose basic function is to minimize the risks in commercial banking in order to make it a reasonably profitable industry.
They are privately owned and privately controlled central banks whose basic goal is to provide an ample and orderly market for U.S. Treasury securities.
9 The primary gain from international trade is:
more goods than would be attainable through domestic production alone
increased employment in the domestic import sector
increased employment in the domestic export sector
10 If the prices of all goods and services rose, but the quantity produced remained unchanged, what would happen to nominal and real GDP?
Nominal and real GDP would both rise
Real GDP would rise, but nominal GDP would be unchanged
Nominal GDP would rise, but real GDP would be unchanged
Nominal and real GDP would both be unchanged
11 Pure monopolists may obtain economic profits in the long run because:
of rising average fixed costs
of barriers to entry
marginal revenue is constant as sales increase
12 Mrs. Arnold is spending all her money income by buying bottles of soda and bags of pretzels in such amounts that the marginal utility of the last bottle is 60 utils and the marginal utility of the last bag is 30 utils. The prices of soda and pretzels are $.60 per bottle and $.40 per bag respectively. It can be concluded that:
the two commodities are substitute goods
Mrs. Arnold should spend more on soda and less on pretzels
Mrs. Arnold should spend more on pretzels and less on soda
Mrs. Arnold is buying soda and pretzels in the utility-maximizing amounts
13 Suppose you have a limited money income and you are purchasing products A and B, whose prices happen to be the same. To maximize your utility, you should purchase A and B in such amounts that:
their marginal and total utilities are proportionate
their marginal utilities are the same
the income and substitution effects associated with each are equal
their total utilities are the same
14 Two major virtues of the market system are that it:
eliminates discrimination and minimizes environmental pollution
allocates resources efficiently and allows economic freedom
results in price level stability and a fair personal distribution of income
results in an equitable personal distribution of income and always maintains full employment
15 Macroeconomics approaches the study of economics from the viewpoint of:
the entire economy
the operation of specific product and resource markets
16 Which of the following will generate a demand for country X's currency in the foreign exchange market?
The imports of country X
Travel by citizens of country X in other countries
The desire of foreigners to buy stocks and bonds of firms in country X
Charitable contributions by country X's citizens to citizens of developing nations
17 The simple circular flow model shows that:
households are on the buying side of both product and resource markets.
businesses are on the selling side of both product and resource markets.
businesses are on the buying side of the product market and on the selling side of the resource market.
households are on the selling side of the resource market and on the buying side of the product market.
surpluses during both recessions and periods of demand-pull inflation
surpluses during recessions and deficits during periods of demand-pull inflation
deficits during recessions and surpluses during periods of demand-pull inflation
deficits during both recessions and periods of demand-pull inflation
19 If the Federal Reserve System buys government securities from commercial banks and the public:
commercial bank reserves will decline
the money supply will contract
it will be easier to obtain loans at commercial banks
commercial bank reserves will be unaffected
20 The two basic markets shown by the simple circular flow model are:
product and resource
free and controlled
capital goods and consumer goods
household and business
21 All else equal, a large decline in the real interest rate will shift the:
investment demand curve rightward
investment demand curve leftward
investment schedule downward
investment schedule upward
22 Normal profit is:
determined by subtracting implicit costs from total revenue
the return to the entrepreneur when economic profits are zero
the average profitability of an industry over the preceding 10 years
determined by subtracting explicit costs from total revenue
23 In the theory of comparative advantage, a good should be produced in that nation where:
its absolute cost in terms of real resources used is least
its cost is least in terms of alternative goods that might otherwise be produced
the production possibilities line lies further to the right than the trading possibilities line
its absolute money cost of production is least
24 As output increases, total variable cost:
increases continuously at a decreasing rate
increases at a constant rate
increases more rapidly than does total cost
increases at a decreasing rate and then at an increasing rate
25 Assume the reserve ratio is 25 percent and Federal Reserve Banks buy $4 million of U.S. securities from the public, which deposits this amount into checking accounts. As a result of these transactions, the supply of money is:
directly increased by $4 million and the money-creating potential of the commercial banking system is increased by $12 million.
directly increased by $4 million and the money-creating potential of the commercial banking system is increased by an additional $16 million.
not directly affected, but the money-creating potential of the commercial banking system is increased by $12 million.
directly reduced by $4 million and the money-creating potential of the commercial banking system is decreased by an additional $12 million.
26 Buyers will opt out of markets in which:
standardized products are being produced
there are only foreign sellers
there are significant negative externalities
there is inadequate information about sellers and their products
27 In order for mutually beneficial trade to occur between two otherwise isolated nations:
each nation must be able to produce at least one good absolutely cheaper than the other
each nation must face constant costs in the production of the good it exports
each nation must be able to produce at least one good relatively cheaper than the other
one nation's production must be labor-intensive while the other nation's production is capital-intensive
28 Research for industrially advanced countries indicates that:
the more independent the central bank, the higher the average annual rate of inflation
there is no relationship between the degree of independence of a country's central bank and its inflation rate.
the more independent the central bank, the higher the average annual rate of unemployment.
the more independent the central bank, the lower the average annual rate of inflation
29 A monopolistically competitive industry combines elements of both competition and monopoly. The monopoly element results from:
the likelihood of collusion
high entry barriers
30 Because the federal government typically provides disaster relief to farmers, many farmers do not buy crop insurance even through it is federally subsidized. This illustrates: